The Province of Naples is one of the five provinces in Campania, Italy, and consists of 92 municipalities. It is one of the most densely populated provinces in Italy with 3.1 million inhabitants, covering 1,171 km2; equating to 2,635 inhabitants per km2. Approximately a third of the population lives in the city of Naples, a city known for music, gastronomy, art, culture and history. The birth rate in the province is higher than the Italian average.
The wider region has a wealth of sites of historical and archaeological importance, including Pompeii and Herculaneum. The landscape is characterised by two volcanic areas, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields. Mount Vesuvius is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted in the last hundred years. The province also includes the islands of Ischia, Capri and Procida. The climate is typically Mediterra- nean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.
The province’s main industries are mechanical and electromechanical, transport, wood products, and textiles. The local climate supports the cultivation of vegetables, citrus fruits, olive-trees and vine fruits. There are 51000 agricultural enterprises in the region with production worth over €500 million. The region hosts many universities and research activities, with particular expertise found in the fields of new materi- als, biotechnology, super-conductivity, and aerospace. Unemployment in the province in 2004 was 19%.
Naples is at the centre of a radial road transport net- work with local road connections to the wider province and region. There is a high level of road transport in the province and this has led to problems of air pollu- tion and congestion, particularly in the city of Naples. The city of Naples has high-speed rail links to Rome, Milan, Turin and Venice, and local rail links connecting the city with the provincial towns along the coast andin the hinterland. The city itself has a network of public transport systems including trams, buses, funicular railways and electric buses.
The port of Naples is one of the largest seaports in the Mediterranean. It is also a busy passenger port, with more than 9 million people travelling to and from the port every year. The port is an important employer in the province, with 370 enterprises. The international airport of Naples, Capodichino, is the most important airport in the south of Italy and with 130 flights daily is a gateway serving more than 4.5 million passengers per year.
Italy has been introducing policies and regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For example there is an obligation for electricity generating companies to produce a proportion of their total electricity output through renewables. A feed-in tariff has also been intro- duced for photovoltaic panels, with a fixed tariff, guar- anteed for 20 years and adjusted annually for inflation. Subsidies are available for cogeneration units fuelled by natural gas and biomass, with larger subsidies avail- able for the latter. There are tax incentives available for investments in solar thermal systems and technologies that promote energy efficiency.
The province has been active in developing pro- grammes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For example, the Naples Agency for Energy and the Environment is running projects to install photovol- taic panels on council-owned buildings; an ‘Ecorent’ scheme provides long term rental of electric vehicles to public service providers; and a ‘safe boiler’ campaign promotes the maintenance of heating systems.