of Madrid, the administrative capital of Spain, and ap- proximately 93% of the city region’s population live in 24% of the region’s area. The landscape around the city includes urban areas, low lying plains, dense forests and part of the Guadar- rama mountain range. The region has a temperate continental climate.
Madrid is the largest city in Spain, its capital, and is one of the largest financial centres in Europe. The head offices of most major Spanish companies are based in the city region. Employment in public administration
in Madrid has declined in recent years as Spain has de- volved power to its autonomous communities. Employ- ment in the service sector has grown, generating over half the city region’s Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2005. The remainder of the city region’s GVA is generated by public administration and the industrial sector.
Tourism is important to the city region, with visitors attracted by art galleries, museums, cathedrals, parks, theatres and other cultural attractions. Madrid is home to one of the most recognisable football teams in the world, Real Madrid. The region hosts a range of educa- tion institutions, including the Complutense University of Madrid, the largest university in Spain.
Madrid is located in the centre of Spain with motor- way connections linking it to other cities in Spain and beyond. The national rail service provides further links to other major cities in Spain, Portugal and France.
A Spanish high-speed rail network is planned which would connect all provincial capitals to Madrid in under 4 hours. The region has the second largest metro system in Western Europe and further expansion is planned. Madrid’s Barajas airport is the fourth busiest airport in Europe by passenger numbers. The airport is the main hub of Iberia Airlines and is located within the city limits of Madrid.
Spain’s 2007 ‘Climate Change and Clean Energy Strategy 2007-2010-2020’ provides a basis for the preparation of city region and city level climate change action plans. The ‘Plan for Urgent Measures’ within the Strategy includes more than eighty actions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are in addition to national measures.
The Community of Madrid has published ‘A Strategy for Air Quality and Climate Change’ in the Madrid Region 2006-2012 referred to as the ‘Blue Plan’ which aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 15% by 2012. The Blue Plan includes actions to reduce energy consumption in homes, reforest 8,000 hectares of moorland, incor- porate bicycle lanes in new urban developments, and provide 10,000 free courses for drivers to learn how to save fuel. Measures to promote renewable and low- carbon energy, especially solar power and energy from waste, are also provided.
The city of Madrid is part of the C40 cities climate initiative. In 2008, the city of Madrid published ‘The City of Madrid Plan for the Sustainable Use of Energy and Climate Change Prevention’. The plan includes emissions inventories and scenarios, as well as detailed actions aimed at reducing emissions and ensuring the city region has a secure supply of energy.