The Ile-de-France region’s population was 11.5 million in 2005 and covers approximately 12,000km2. This makes the region the most densely inhabited region in France. The region includes 1,281 towns and cities including the city of Paris - which accommodates nearly one fifth of the region’s population.

The region is comprised of a highly urbanised central zone, including the densely populated three-depart- ment area known as the ‘inner ring’ and a less densely populated four-department ‘outer ring’. The region is situated at the heart of the Paris basin, which borders the mountain ranges of the Ardennes, the Vosges and the Morvan. Agricultural and green space make up 79% of the land. This includes four natural parks. In the outer ring, 24% of the land area is comprised of leisure parks and rich and varied natural habitats and forests.

In 2005, 30.5% of the region’s population was aged be- tween 20 and 39 years old making it one of the young- est populations in France. In 2010, 56.8% of the region was less than 40 years old. Although people are tending to leave the region when they retire, population growth comes less from inward migration from the rest of France and more from births within the region. In 2010, more than one in five births in France was in the Ile-de- France region. The region has been the most ethnically diverse area of France since the 1930s.

Ile de France has the largest regional share of the national economy, accounting for 29% of GDP in 2009. The region has Europe’s largest share of the world’s 500 biggest companies located within it, second globally to Tokyo1. A quality of life survey by Monocle Magazine found it to be the seventh best city in the world to live and work in2.

Industry, including construction, accounted for 12% of gross value added (GVA) in 2005, agriculture less than 1%, the commercial sector 71% of GVA, and public administration 16% of GVA. In 2010, 83% of the region’s employees worked in public administration or the service sector.

The region has an established transport network includ- ing 16 Metro Lines covering 211 kilometres of track, five RER lines, two tram ways and 1400 bus routes. There is one private vehicle registered for every 2.1 people in the region. The region has connections to the French TGV network and high-speed links to Brussels and London. The three main airports in the region, Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly and Paris Le-Bourget, handled 83 million passengers in 20093.

The ‘Grenelle 1’ or ‘Grenelle Environment’ identifies national-level policies for the environment, including climate change. Headline targets include a 20% reduc- tion of GhG emissions by 2020 on a 2009 baseline, a 20% improvement in energy efficiency by 2020, and the percentage of energy consumption from renewable energy to be 23% by 2020.

The national ‘Plan Climate 2004’, which was updated in 2006, sets the target to reduce GhG emissions by 75% by 2050. The Ile-de-France region has set a higher target of reducing GhG emissions by a factor of 4 by 2030. The Ile-de-France Regional Council is currently forming its first Regional Climate Plan. Furthermore, the national and regional administrations are working together to develop a Regional Plan for Energy, Air and Climate, in accordance with the Grenelle National Law.