Turin is the capital of the Piedmont region and is located in the north west of Italy on the bank of the Po River. It is surrounded to the north and west by the Alps. The province of Turin is one of 8 provinces of Pied- mont; includes 315 municipalities and covers an area of 6830km2, with a landscape that incorporates moun- tains, hills and plains.

The province was home to 2.24 million inhabitants in 2005, an increase from 2001 as a result of migration from southern Italy and immigration from abroad. Over half of the provincial population lives in the city of Turin and the surrounding urban area. On average there were 2.2 people per household in the province. There were 328 inhabitants per km2 in 2005, higher than the national average. The population of the province is ag- ing due to an increasing life expectancy and a declining birth rate. In 2005 approximately 18% of the population was under 18 and 22% over 65.

The Province of Turin is a major industrial centre that specialises in the development and manufacture of transport vehicles. Turin is known for its aerospace industry, and has emerging information technology, biotechnology and renewable energy sectors. Italy’s largest bank, Intesa Sanpaolo, was founded in the province. The Province of Turin is also a popular tourist destination. Turin is home to the University of Turin and the Polytechnic University of Turin. In recent years, unemployment in the region has fluctuated around the 6% mark.

Turin can be accessed via toll motorways from France, Switzerland and other parts of Italy, and there are regular trains that connect Turin with other large Italian cities. The province’s metro system, the Metropolitana di Torino, connects Turin city centre with the city of Col- legno, with planned expansions to the network that willlink the city’s south-western suburbs to the northern district of Barriera di Milano. Suburban commuter railways further connect surrounding towns to the city of Turin. The Turin-Caselle Airport is an international airport located to the north of Turin, which carried 3.5 million passengers in 20101.

Italy has been introducing policies and regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For example there is an obligation for electricity generating companies to produce a proportion of their total electricity output through renewables. A feed-in tariff has also been intro- duced for photovoltaic panels, with a fixed tariff, guar- anteed for 20 years and adjusted annually for inflation. Subsidies are available for cogeneration units fuelled by natural gas and bioenergy, with larger subsidies avail- able for the latter. There are tax incentives available for investments in solar thermal systems and technologies that promote energy efficiency.

Emissions per capita in Turin are about the same as the Italian average, albeit with more emissions from indus- try than many other Italian cities.